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什么是术语(计算机专业术语一)

2023-09-12 02:42 作者:MochiCruise 围观:

计算机专业术语一,下面一起来看看本站小编MochiCruise给大家精心整理的答案,希望对您有帮助

Floating Point

Floating-point numbers are a data type used in computer programming that stores a number with a floating decimal point. A decimal point "floats" when its position is not fixed in place by the number format. For example, 3.145, 12.99, and 234.9876 are all floating-point numbers since the decimal point is not always in the same position.

A computer stores a floating-point number by breaking it into two parts. The first is called the "significand" or "mantissa," which stores the significant digits as a whole number value without a decimal point. The second is the "exponent," which modifies the magnitude of the significand by setting the position of the decimal point. Multiplying the significand by the exponent produces the final value. Some floating-point number formats use a base-10 exponent, while others use a base-2 exponent. For example, storing the number 4.7988 as a floating-point number would use the significand "47988" and the exponent

Computer programming languages store numbers without decimal points (called integers) as a separate number format. Some languages also support fixed-point numbers, which fix the decimal point in the same place for every number — for example, currency values that always have two digits after a decimal point. Mathematical calculations using integers or fixed-point numbers are less computationally expensive, so using those options when possible is more efficient than using floating-point numbers for everything.

NOTE: Older computer CPUs like the Intel 80386 and the Motorola 68000 series lacked hardware support for floating-point operations, slowly performing them in software instead. These chips used a companion processor, called a floating point unit (FPU) or "math coprocessor," to take over floating-point operations and significantly improve performance. Modern processors include support for floating-point operations without a coprocessor.

重点词汇

Computer Science 计算机科学

Technical Terms 技术术语 ; 专业术语

Floating Point 浮点 ; 浮点数

number with 带有的数字 ; 把…包括进

floating decimal 浮点十进制

decimal point 小数点

same position 位置

mantissa [mænˈtɪsə] 尾数,小数部分

floating-point number 浮点数 ; 浮点数值 ; 浮点数表示法

significant digits 有效数字 ; 有效位数 ; 有效数字位数

exponent [ɪkˈspoʊnənt] 指数(幂)。比如 4.7988 = 47988 * 读作 10 负 4 次方或 10 的 负 4 次幂,其中 的 英文读法为:10 to the negative 4th power

浮点数是计算机编程中使用的一种数据类型,用于存储带有浮点小数点的数字。当小数点的位置没有被数字格式固定时,小数点“浮动”。例如,3.145、12.99和234.9876都是浮点数,因为小数点并不总是在同一位置。

计算机通过将浮点数分成两部分来存储浮点数。第一个被称为“有效位”或“尾数”,它将有效数字存储为一个没有小数点的整数值。第二个是“指数”,它通过设置小数点的位置来修改有效位的大小。将有效位与指数相乘产生最终值。一些浮点数格式使用以10为基数的指数,而其他浮点数格式则使用以2为基数的幂。例如,将数字4.7988存储为浮点数将使用有效位“47988”和指数。

计算机编程语言将没有小数点的数字(称为整数)存储为单独的数字格式。有些语言还支持定点数字,它将每个数字的小数点固定在同一位置——例如,货币值的小数点后总是有两位数字。使用整数或定点数进行数学计算的计算成本较低,因此在可能的情况下使用这些选项比在所有情况下使用浮点数更有效。

注:像Intel 80386和Motorola 68000系列这样的老式计算机CPU缺乏对浮点运算的硬件支持,只能在软件中缓慢执行。这些芯片使用了一种称为浮点单元(FPU)或“数学协处理器”的配套处理器来接管浮点运算并显著提高性能。现代处理器支持无需协处理器的浮点运算。

Binary

Binary (or base-2) a numeric system that only uses two digits — 0 and 1. Computers operate in binary, meaning they store data and perform calculations using only zeros and ones.

A single binary digit can only represent True (1) or False (0) in boolean logic. However, multiple binary digits can be used to represent large numbers and perform complex functions. In fact, any integer can be represented in binary.

One bit contains a single binary value — either a 0 or a 1. A byte contains eight bits, which means it can have 256 (28) different values. These values may be used to represent different characters in a text document, the RGB values of a pixel within an image file, or many other types of data.

Large files may contain several thousand bytes (or several megabytes) of binary data. A large application may take up thousands of megabytes of data. No matter how big a file or program is, at its most basic level, it is simply a collection of binary digits that can be read by a computer processor.

NOTE: The term "binary" may also be used to describe a compiled software program. Once a program has been compiled, it contains binary data called "machine code" that can be executed by a computer's CPU. In this case, "binary" is used in contrast to the text-based source code files that were used to build the application.

重点词汇:

megabytes 兆字节,即 MB

二进制(或以2为基数)只使用两位数字的数字系统——0和1。计算机以二进制操作,这意味着它们只使用零和一来存储数据和执行计算。

在布尔逻辑中,单个二进制数字只能表示True(1)或False(0)。然而,多个二进制数字可以用来表示大数字并执行复杂的功能。事实上,任何整数都可以用二进制表示。

一位包含一个二进制值——0或1。一个字节包含八个比特,这意味着它可以有256(28)个不同的值。这些值可以用于表示文本文档中的不同字符、图像文件中像素的RGB值或许多其他类型的数据。

大文件可能包含几千字节(或几兆字节)的二进制数据。一个大型应用程序可能会占用数千兆字节的数据。无论一个文件或程序有多大,在最基本的层面上,它都只是一个可以由计算机处理器读取的二进制数字的集合。

注:术语“二进制”也可用于描述已编译的软件程序。一旦一个程序被编译,它就包含被称为“机器代码”的二进制数据,这些数据可以由计算机的CPU执行。在这种情况下,使用“二进制”与用于构建应用程序的基于文本的源代码文件形成对比。

VLAN

Stands for "Virtual Local Area Network," or "Virtual LAN." A VLAN is a custom network created from one or more existing LANs. It enables groups of devices from multiple networks (both wired and wireless) to be combined into a single logical network. The result is a virtual LAN that can be administered like a physical local area network.

In order to create a virtual LAN, the network equipment, such as routers and switches must support VLAN configuration. The hardware is typically configured using a software admin tool that allows the network administrator to customize the virtual network. The admin software can be used to assign inpidual ports or groups of ports on a switch to a specific VLAN. For example, ports 1-12 on switch #1 and ports 13-24 on switch #2 could be assigned to the same VLAN.

Say a company has three pisions within a single building — finance, marketing, and development. Even if these groups are spread across several locations, VLANs can be configured for each one. For instance, each member of the finance team could be assigned to the "finance" network, which would not be accessible by the marketing or development teams. This type of configuration limits unnecessary access to confidential information and provides added security within a local area network.

VLAN Protocols

Since traffic from multiple VLANs may travel over the same physical network, the data must be mapped to a specific network. This is done using a VLAN protocol, such as IEEE 802.1Q, Cisco's ISL, or 3Com's VLT. Most modern VLANs use the IEEE 802.1Q protocol, which inserts an additional header or "tag" into each Ethernet frame. This tag identifies the VLAN to which the sending device belongs, preventing data from being routed to systems outside the virtual network. Data is sent between switches using a physical link called a "trunk" that connects the switches together. Trunking must be enabled in order for one switch to pass VLAN information to another.

4,904 VLANs can be created within an Ethernet network using the 802.1Q protocol, but in most network configurations only a few VLANs are needed. Wireless devices can be included in a VLAN, but they must be routed through a wireless router that is connected to the LAN.

代表“虚拟局域网”或“虚拟LAN”。VLAN是从一个或多个现有LAN创建的自定义网络。它使来自多个网络(有线和无线)的设备组能够组合到单个逻辑网络中。其结果是可以像物理局域网一样管理虚拟局域网。

为了创建虚拟局域网,路由器和交换机等网络设备必须支持VLAN配置。硬件通常使用软件管理工具进行配置,该软件管理工具允许网络管理员自定义虚拟网络。管理软件可用于将交换机上的单个端口或端口组分配给特定的VLAN。例如,交换机#1上的端口1-12和交换机#2上的端口13-24可以被分配给相同的VLAN。

假设一家公司在一栋大楼里有三个部门——财务、营销和开发。即使这些组分布在多个位置,也可以为每个位置配置VLAN。例如,财务团队的每个成员都可以被分配到“财务”网络,营销或开发团队无法访问该网络。这种类型的配置限制了对机密信息的不必要访问,并在局域网内提供了额外的安全性。

VLAN协议

由于来自多个VLAN的流量可能在同一物理网络上传输,因此必须将数据映射到特定网络。这是使用VLAN协议完成的,例如IEEE 802.1Q、Cisco的ISL或3Com的VLT。大多数现代VLAN使用IEEE 802.1Q协议,该协议在每个以太网帧中插入一个额外的报头或“标签”。此标签标识发送设备所属的VLAN,防止数据路由到虚拟网络之外的系统。数据在交换机之间使用称为“中继”的物理链路进行发送,该链路将交换机连接在一起。必须启用中继,一个交换机才能将VLAN信息传递给另一个交换机。

可以使用802.1Q协议在以太网内创建4904个VLAN,但在大多数网络配置中,只需要几个VLAN。无线设备可以包含在VLAN中,但必须通过连接到LAN的无线路由器进行路由。

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